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The Mary Chipperfield trial remains the defining legal case in circus campaigning. She was convicted on 12 counts of animal cruelty towards 18-month old chimp Trudy. Her husband, Roger Cawley, was also convicted of cruelty to a sick elephant named Flora. Footage of the animal abuse sent shockwaves around the world and 400 video tapes of undercover footage filmed by ADI were handed over to the trial.http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/2230913.stmMary Chipperfield was not banned from keeping or training animals, despite famously declaring at her trial; I dont regret anything. I havent done anything abusive to harm any of my animals. In recent years she was filmed by undercover ADI field officers at a European circus with a group of white tigers she trained.http://www.independent.co.uk/news/mary-chipperfield-beat-young-chimpanzee-until-it-screamed-1075005.htmlThe couple were acquitted on 28 other charges, as whipping animals, chaining them up, depriving them of water and failing to provide basic hygiene, did not come under the legal definition of cruelty at that time. The investigation and trial showed that not only did the circus industry consider violence towards animals to be acceptable, but that the law could not protect animals in the entertainment industry.The pair were fined a total of £8,500 plus costs. After a major media campaign, Trudy was re-homed to the Monkey World sanctuary in Dorset. Two of the elephants previously owned by the couple are now living at Colchester Zoo.More recentley Duffys Circus was exposed by CAPS see http://www.irishcircuses.org/2003/expose_circuses.htmlNo circus with animals can ever be humane, no wild animal would perform stupid and unnatural tricks without having to be beaten into it. Even an eminent wild animal trainer has said that it is impossible to train these animals without the use of 'extreme punishment'. There is no place for such an archaic and cruel 'entertainment' in modern society. Like bull baiting and dog fighting, the animal circus needs to be condemned to a bygone age and banished to the history books.Also please check out http://www.ad-international.org/animals_in_entertainment/go.php?id=56&ssi=10This article clearly states the cruelty involved with the Chipperfield family including DickyAfter spending a whole day debating the circus animals with a member of the Chipperfield family I would just like to state that if you have read the Defra report on circus animals you would have realised the report was always going to be flawed due to the remit.: A comparisson of circus animals to zoo animals in terms of welfare, the report did NOT take into consideration the training methods all these animals have to endure. Nor what the difference between their life incarcerated in either a zoo or circus and their wild counterparts. The Defra report in NO WAY SHAPE OR FORM does in any way justify the use of animals in circuses not does it disprove it.What about the report comissioned by the RSPCA by Dr Marthe Kiley Worthington? As I have had thrown in my face a circus clown (another Chipperfield)This report was very damming of the circus and its practices its key points included:Circus animals demonstrate stereotypic&abnormal behaviour patterns indicative ofprolonged stress&sufferingCircus animals were kept in close confinementmost of the time.Animals in circuses do not benefit any educational CONSERVATION or scientific cause.All species of circus animals examined showed stereotypic&other abnormal behaviour patterns.In the cases of elephants Dr K W found that these abnormal behaviours occupied upto 25% of their time, she also went on to state from her data that in the case of big cats they spend 90% of their time confined to transport crates and had between 0.17&0.45 m3 of space per animalThe report revealed that in British circuses, lions and tigers are confined to their beast wagons for 90 per cent of the time, each animal occupying a space of between 0.17 and 0.45 cubic metres; that elephants are shackled for 60 per cent of the time and are only able to lie down with difficulty; that 40 per cent of the big cats have to be forced into the ring "by poking a broom handle into their wagon"; that bears spend more than a third of their time in abnormal activity such as pacing to and Accomodation for the animals was clearly shown to be GROSSLY inadequate providing extremely cramped and a highly impoverished environment.In addition Dr K W noted that 70% of circus animals are not in peak condition at their winter quaters & were often confined in buildings which were not of high enough quality the entire time.So PLEASE If you are circus bias save your breath!!!